A wafer is a thin slice of material that is used as a semiconductor. It Is commonly a silicon crystal and it is used in integrated circuits and other device components. Some types of solar cells are also made of wafers. Wafers undergo several processes during microfabrication such as etching, deposition of materials, doping, ion implantation, and photolithographic patterning. Wafer reclaiming services can bring used wafers back to their original patterning and eliminate impurities that have built up over time.
Silicon wafers are the most common, but wafers made of other materials are available on the market. These will have different thicknesses that are determined by several different factors. The material must be able to support its own weight without breaking or cracking while it is being handled.
Wafers typically have impurities that measure about 0.0000001%. They are made with an initial concentration of impure materials that make the wafer either an n-type or a p-type. N-type, or negative-type semiconductors are materials that were introduced to n-type elements like phosphorous, arsenic, and antimony. P-type, or positive-type semiconductors, are materials that were introduced to p-type elements such as boron, aluminum, and gallium.
Transition metals must be kept to extremely low levels for electronic uses, and contaminants like carbon and metallic are kept to a minimum. When reclaiming services restore wafers, they strip the wafers and process them to remove any patterns that previously existed. They are them polished and repatterned and any contaminants are removed. This gives you a fresh and clean wafer that is ready for use.
If you’re in need of wafers, it is important to know what kind you need in your equipment. P-type wafers have been infused with positive elements like aluminum while n-type semiconductors have been infused with negative elements like arsenic. Now that you know what a wafer is, you can put them to good use in all your electronic equipment.Read More